The Office of University Relations, with few exceptions, adheres to The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual in its editorial standards. This includes writing for press releases, as well as material for publications, periodicals and the Internet. This website was created to help members of the Winthrop community who submit or post written material to do so in the correct Winthrop style. Common standard usages are listed in alphabetical order below. The listing is bookmarked so you can click on the letters to quickly link to a particular listing. You also may browse the entire guide. The links at left are additional information to assist you.
Please contact Monica Bennett, director of communications and periodicals editor, if you have questions or comments on the university’s style guide.
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a, an - Use the article “a” before consonant sounds (a historic event, a one-year term), sounds as if beginning with a “w,” or sounds like “you” (a united stand); use “an” before vowel sounds.
abbreviations and acronyms - Details listed below.
BEFORE A NAME: Abbreviate the following titles when used before a full name outside direct quotations: Dr., Gov., Lt. Gov., Mr., Mrs., Rep., the Rev., Sen.
AFTER A NAME: Abbreviate “junior” or “senior” after an individual’s name but do not use a comma preceding: John Smith Jr., Robert A. Thomas Sr.
AFTER A COMPANY NAME: Abbreviate company, corporation, incorporated and limited when used after the name of a corporate entity.
DEGREES: In some cases, an academic degree may be abbreviated after an individual’s name; also see Appendix IV.
WITH DATES OR NUMERALS: Use the abbreviations “A.D.,” “B.C.,” “a.m.,” “p.m.,” “No.;” abbreviate certain months when used in dates within a story or news article (in 450 B.C., at 9:30 a.m., in room No. 6, on Sept. 16); also see months in alpha listing.
MONTHS: See months in alpha listing.
STATES: See Appendix I.
Academic Computing Center - The official name for the center; also see Appendix II.
ACT - The acronym for the American College Test (ACT – no periods between letters).
academic degrees - Use an apostrophe in “bachelor’s degree,” “ master’s,” etc; use abbreviations when the need to identify many individuals by degree, on first reference, would make the complete degree title cumbersome; use abbreviations only after a full name—never after just a last name; when used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas (Daniel Barnes, Ph.D., spoke at the conference); always use periods with academic degree abbreviations ( M.B.A., M.Mth.); for abbreviations of the specific degrees awarded at Winthrop, see Appendix IV.
academic departments - Use lowercase letters except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives (the history department, the English department. Examples: Jane Smith, of Winthrop’s history department, will lecture on World War II; or Winthrop’s Department of History will host a series of lectures of World War II). Also see Appendix III.
academic success communities – The umbrella term referring to Winthrop’s academic theme floors as a whole.
academic titles - Capitalize and spell out formal titles when they precede a name; lowercase elsewhere (Winthrop’s President Jayne Marie (Jamie) Comstock; Jayne Marie (Jamie) Comstock is Winthrop’s president); also see titles.
accept, except - “Accept” means to receive; “except” means to exclude.
addresses - Use the abbreviations “Ave.,” “Blvd.” and “St.” only with a numbered address (1600 Pennsylvania Ave.); spell them out and capitalize when part of a formal street name without a number (Pennsylvania Avenue); lowercase and spell out when used alone or with more than one street name, and when they share similar words (Massachusetts and Pennsylvania avenues); capitalize these words when part of a formal name without a number; lowercase when used alone or with two or more names; always use figures for an address number (9 Morningside Circle versus Nine Morningside Circle); spell out and capitalize “First” through “Ninth” when used as street names; use figures with two digits for 10th and higher.
administration - Always spell using lowercase letters (the administration, the president’s administration, the governor’s administration, the Bush administration).
admissions office - Informal reference to the Office of Admissions; also see Appendix III.
adviser - The correct spelling, not “advisor.”
affect, effect - “Affect,” as a verb, means “to influence” (the game will affect their standings); “affect,” as a noun, is occasionally used in psychology to describe an emotion but should be avoided in everyday language; “effect,” as a verb, means “to cause” (he will effect many changes in the company); ”effect,” as a noun, means “result” (the effect was overwhelming, he miscalculated the effect of his actions).
African American - Always capitalize but hyphenate only when used as an adjective preceding a noun (U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx is African American; the African-American writer recently completed a novel).
ages - Always use figures when referring to age; when the context does not require “year” or “years old,” the figure is presumed to be years; ages expressed as adjectives before a noun, or as substitutes for a noun, use hyphens (a 5-year-old boy; the boy is 5 years old; the woman, 26, has a daughter 2 months old).
aka - The abbreviation for “also known as.”
alma mater – Winthrop has adopted the style of spelling “alma mater” using all lower case letters.
alumnus, alumni, alumna, alumnae - Use “alumnus” (alumni in the plural form) when referring to a man who has attended a school; use “alumna” (alumnae in the plural form) for similar references to a woman; use “alumni” when referring to a group of men and women.
a.m., p.m. - Use lowercase letters and periods; avoid the redundant “10 a.m. this morning” and similar statements; when referring to a range of times within a day, only one reference to a.m./p.m. is necessary, unless the range starts in the morning and ends in the evening (7-10 a.m., 7 a.m.-5 p.m., 5-7 p.m.).
among, between - In most cases, “between” introduces two items and “among” introduces more than two items; “between” is the correct word when expressing the relationships of three or more items, considered as a group, at a given time (negotiations are under way between the network and the Ford, Carter and McCarthy committees); as with all prepositions, any pronouns that follow these words must be in the objective case (among us, between him and her, between you and me).
Anthony J. and Gale N. DiGiorgio Campus Center – The formal building name; DiGiorgio Campus Center acceptable reference; DiGiorgio Center acceptable on second reference; also see Appendix II. See Appendix VII for DiGiorgio Center style guide.
ARAMARK - The official name for the food service company at Winthrop; spell using all uppercase letters.
area codes – Winthrop has adopted the style of using a slash to separate the area code from the local telephone number (803/323-2236), in an effort to conserve space.
Arts in Basic Curriculum Project - The official name for this project, in first reference; in subsequent references, “ABC Project” may be used.
art work - Use as two words.
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bachelor of arts, bachelor of science - A “bachelor’s degree” or “bachelor’s” is acceptable for either reference; for abbreviations, also see Appendix IV.
Bancroft Hall - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, Bancroft may be used.
bimonthly - Means every other month; “semimonthly” means twice a month.
biweekly - Means every other week; “semiweekly” means twice a week.
board of trustees – In general reference to this type of governing body, use lowercase letters; second reference may be simplified to “board” not “BOT;” the formal name at Winthrop is Winthrop University Board of Trustees.
businessperson - Use as one word.
Byrnes Auditorium - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, Byrnes may be used.
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campuswide - Use as one word.
chair – Winthrop has adopted the term “chair” in reference to the head of a department or committee; use a capital letter when using “chair” as a formal title before a name (Chair Henry Ford); do not capitalize “chair” when referring to a casual temporary position (meeting chair, Nora Jones).
class years - Use no parentheses or commas around year (John Smith ’80) ; for multiple degrees, write as “John Jones ’82, M.B.A. ’87.”
co-author - Use as a hyphenated word.
co-chair - Use as a hyphenated word.
coed - The preferred term as a noun is female student, but coed is acceptable as an adjective to describe coeducational institutions. No hyphen.
collective nouns - Nouns that denote a unit take singular verbs and pronouns (the jury has made its decision); some words that are plural in form become collective nouns, using singular verbs, when the group or quantity is regarded as a unit (the data is sound, the data have been collected).
Commencement - always capitalize.
Community Concourse - Official name for area between the West Center and DiGiorgio Campus Center; second reference is "The Concourse."
composition titles - Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjuctions of four or more letters. Capitalize an article—the, a, an—or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Put quotation marks around the names of all such works except the Bible and books that are primarily catalogs of reference material. In addition to catalogs, this category includes almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks and similar publications.
Comstock - President Jayne Marie Comstock or President Jamie Comstock, depending on formality.
Conservatory of Music - The official building name; also see Appendix II.
Convocation - always capitalize.
Council of Student Leaders – The official name for the representative body of Winthrop student leaders that provides students a significant role in institutional decision-making and self-governance.
course work – Use as two words.
Courtyard at Winthrop - The official name for this "townhouse-style" housing option, in first reference; in subsequent references, Courtyard may be used.
Crawford Building - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, Crawford may be used.
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Dacus Library - The informal reference to Ida Jane Dacus Library, used only in second reference; also see Appendix II.
Dalton Hall - The official building name; also see Appendix II.
D.C. - The correct abbreviation for the District of Columbia, using periods.
decades - Use figures, with no apostrophe before “s” (1960s or ’60s).
degrees - Within text, spell out (it was 75 degrees); in tables, use symbol ( 75˚); also see academic degrees and Appendix IV. Use periods when referencing academic degrees. For example: Ed. M.B.A., Ph.D., B.A., M.A.; also see Appendix IV.
departments – For the official names of Winthrop departments, see Appendix III.
DiGiorgio - President Emeritus and Distinguished Professor of Service Anthony J. DiGiorgio
DiGiorgio Student Union Program Board - The official board name.
Dinkins Hall- The official building name; also see Appendix II.
directions and regions - In general, lowercase “north,” “south,” “northeast,” “northern,” etc., when they indicate compass direction; capitalize those words when they designate regions (settlers from the East went West; Southeast region; mid-Atlantic region).
disc, disk - Use this spelling except for some computer-related references (laserdisc, videodisc, but hard disk); a “disk” is the thin, flat plate on which computer data can be stored.
disabilities - Instead of "handicapped" people, the preferred reference is "people with disabilities."
distance learning, distance-learning - Do not hyphenate when used as a noun (he is the director of distance learning); use a hyphen when used as an adjective (a distance-learning classroom).
distances - Use figures for 10 and above, spell out one through nine (he walked four miles).
doctor - Use “Dr.” in first reference as a formal title before the name of an individual who holds a doctor of dental surgery, doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy, or doctor of podiatric medicine; do not use “Dr.” before the names of individuals who hold only honorary doctorates; see academic titles.
doctorate - Avoid using "doctorate degree." (Example: Jane Smith earned a doctorate in history.)
dollars - Always write in lowercase letters; use figures and the $ sign in all cases except casual references, or amounts without a figure ($26 million; hundreds of dollars).
dotcom - Use as one word.
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e-business - A hyphenated word referring to a business with a presence online.
e-commerce - A hyphenated word referring to buying or selling activity that occurs online.
Edmund D. Lewandowski Student Gallery - The official name for this gallery; also see Appendix II.
electronic mail address (Winthrop’s format) - In most cases, Winthrop assigns e-mail addresses as email@example.com (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Elizabeth Dunlap Patrick Gallery - The official name for this gallery; also see Appendix II.
Elizabeth Norfleet King Atrium – The official name for this space; also see Appendix II.
e-mail - The informal reference to the noun “electronic mail,” and should always be hyphenated; use “e-mail,” as a verb, only in informal writing.
emeritus, emerita, emeriti - A word often added to formal titles to denote that retired faculty retain their rank or title; place “emeritus” after the formal title (Professor Emeritus Samuel Eliot Morison); “emeritus” is used in singular form for a male; “emerita” is used in singular form for a female; and “emeriti” is used in plural form.
exclamation mark - Use “!” rarely, if at all; if used, use only at the end of the sentence; do not use two or more to stress an exclamation.
euro - The official currency for 12 of the European Union nations (as of 2005) (see AP Stylebook for specific list of nations); use lowercase letters when writing.
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Farm – See Winthrop University Lake Area Recreational and Research Complex.
fax - The acceptable short version of “facsimile” or “facsimile machine,” when used as a noun or verb.
first year, first-year - Do not hyphenate when using as a noun (during her first year); hyphenate when using as an adjective (she’s a first-year student).
flautist, flutist - The preferred word is “flutist.”
Frances May Barnes Recital Hall - The official name of this auditorium; also see Appendix II.
freshman, freshmen - As a noun, “freshman” is a first-year student and remains singular when used as an adjective (a freshman course); “freshmen” refers to more than one first-year student.
fundraiser, fundraising - As a noun, “fundraiser” is one word (they plan to hold a fundraiser); as an adjective, the hyphenated form is used (they are holding a fund-raising event); when referring to the action of raising funds, either one word or its hyphenated form can be used (fundraising is difficult).
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Glenda Pittman and Charles Jerry Owens Hall - The official building name; may be referred to as Owens Hall in subsequent references.
Good Building - The campus location of Winthrop’s Campus Police; also see Appendix II.
GMAT - The acronym for the Graduate Management Admission Test, using no periods.
Graduate School - The official name; do not capitalize "the" when referring to "the Graduate School."
GPA - The acronym for “grade point average,” using no periods.
GRE - The acronym for “Graduate Record Examinations,” using no periods.
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healthcare, health-care - Winthrop has adopted the one-word, versus two-word, spelling the noun form of the word (She is working in healthcare at Central Piedmont Medical Center); as an adjective, the word is spelled with a hyphen (Over the last half century, the health-care industry has become more dependent on technology).
Hanukkah - The Jewish Festival of Lights, an eight-day commemoration of rededication of the Temple by the Maccabees after their victory over the Syrians; usually in late November or early December.
high-tech - An informal reference to “high technology.”
historic, historical - A “historic” event is an important occurrence, one that stands out in history; a “historical” event is any occurrence in the past.
holidays - The official names of holidays should always be capitalized.
hometown - Use as one word.
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Ida Jane Dacus Library - The official name of Winthrop’s library, in first reference; may be referred to as “Dacus Library” in subsequent references; also see Appendix II.
industrywide - Use as one word.
Internet - The official name referring to the network of computers comprising the World Wide Web; always capitalize (surfing the Internet).
Inn at Winthrop - The official name of Winthrop's short-stay lodging accommodations located in Joynes Hall; the full name should be used in all references; if the word "inn" is used alone in subsequent references, then the word should not be capitalized; also see Appendix II.
Irvin and Jean Kirby Plowden Auditorium - The official name of this auditorium, in first reference; may be referred to as “Plowden Auditorium” in subsequent references or in places where there is limited space, such as in a calendar; also see Appendix II.
Ivy League - A specific group of colleges including Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania and Yale University.
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Johnson Hall - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, Johnson may be used.
Joynes Hall - Formerly known as “Winthrop Conference Center,” but now referred to as “Joynes Hall” in its new role as housing the Office of Admissions, the Office of Public Events, the Inn at Winthrop, as well as other offices; also see Appendix II.
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Kinard Hall - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, Kinard may be used.
Kwanzaa - Kwanzaa is the first non-heroic holiday celebrated by African-American families. Kwanzaa was founded by Dr. Maulana Ron Karenga in 1966, and is a seven-day holiday celebrated from Dec. 26 – Jan 1.
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languages - Capitalize the proper names of languages and dialects (Spanish, Creole).
LSAT - The acronym for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT – no periods between letters).
Learning Excellent Academic Practices Program - The official name for this program, in first reference; may be referred to as “LEAP program” in subsequent references; also see Appendix III.
lecturn, podium, pulpit, rostrum - A speaker stands behind a lecturn, on a podium or rostrum, or in the pulpit.
Lee Wicker Hall - The official name for this residence hall, in first reference; in subsequent references, Lee Wicker may be used.
legislative titles - See Appendix VI.
Little Chapel - The official name for this building; also see Appendix II.
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Macfeat House - No acceptable second references
Macfeat Early Childhood Laboratory School - The official name for this school. “Macfeat” may be used for short; also see Appendix II.
magazine names - Magazine names should be written with initial capital letters; they should not be written in italics or quotes.
make up, makeup - As two words, “make up” acts as a verb (he must make up the exam); as one word, “makeup” is a noun or adjective (he is taking a makeup exam).
Margaret Nance Hall - The official name for this residence hall, in first reference; in subsequent references, Margaret Nance may be used.
Markley's at the Center - The official name for the DiGiorgio Campus Center food court (vendors and tables). In second reference, Markley's may be used.
master’s degree – In the plural form, add an “s” to the word “degrees;” (She holds two master’s degrees from Winthrop University); also see Appendix IV.
McBryde Hall - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, McBryde may be used.
McLaurin Hall - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, McLaurin may be used.
media - “Media” is a plural word, in a sense of mass communication, and requires a plural verb form (the media uses photographs frequently).
midnight - Spell using lowercase letters; never use with numbers (as in 12 midnight nor 12:00 as that is considered redundant).
months - Abbreviate the month only if indicating a specific date within a paragraph (September 2000 was an unseasonably warm month, temperatures plunged to freezing on Sept. 27.); the following months are never abbreviated: March, April, May, June, July.
more than - This phrase should be used with figures, quantities, amounts (more than 50 people attended, not over 50 people attended).
myself – “Myself” is a reflexive pronoun, used to avoid repetition when a subject and object are the same (I was only lying to myself).
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the Net - Informal reference to “Internet,” only when used in subsequent references; a worldwide network of computers that can communicate with each other; spell with initial upper case “N.”
noon - Spell using lowercase letters; never use with numbers as in “12 noon or 12:00 noon,” as it is considered redundant.
non - Do not use a hyphen after “non,” when forming a compound word, unless the combination would be otherwise awkward or forms another specific word (non-nuclear, nonplused).
numbers - Spell out “one” through “nine” except when describing age (2-year-old), or measurements (5 ft. 1 in.), or scores (71-67); also see ordinal numbers.
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office - Capitalize “o” when it is part of the formal name (Office of Admissions, admissions office).
OK - The correct spelling, using all caps and no periods.
on - Do not use before a date or day of week unless its omission would create an awkward phrase (we will be meeting March 5, 2003).
online - The correct spelling for term meaning computer connection to World Wide Web; do not hyphenate.
ordinal numbers - Spell “first” through “ninth” when they indicate sequence in time or location; starting with “10th,” use figures except when the sequence has been assigned in forming names, such as in military or geographic designations (1st Ward,
organizations - Do not capitalize internal elements of an organization when they have widely used generic terms (board of trustees at Winthrop, men’s basketball team).
over - Generally used to indicate a spatial relationship (the plane flew over Tillman Hall); when discussing numbers, “more than ” is preferable to “over.”
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part-time, full-time - Hyphenate these only when used as an adjective preceding a noun (a part-time job; he is working part time).
percentages - Spell out “percent” except in tables, where the % sign should be used instead. Use figures, such as 1 percent, 2.5 percent (use decimals, not fractions), 10 percent. For amounts less than 1, use a decimal with a zero, such as 0.6 percent. Repeat percent with each individual figure (10 percent to 30 percent).
Ph.D. - Abbreviate using periods as indicated. Another form is to say a person holds a doctorate and name the individual’s specialty. Also see Appendix IV.
Phelps Hall - The official name for this residence hall, in first reference; in subsequent references, Phelps may be used.
Piedmont Wetlands Project - The official name for the 1.1 acre area that adjoins the Winthrop Lake; the Wetlands is acceptable for second references.
plurals - When forming plurals of single letters, an apostrophe should precede the “s” (mind your p’s and q’s); for plurals of numbers or multiple-letter combinations, no apostrophe is needed (the music of the ’70s, FAQs).
p.m. - The correct spelling, using lowercase letters and periods. Avoid the redundant 10 p.m. tonight.
P.O. Box - Abbreviate by using periods.
podcast - a downloadable audio program.
postdoctoral - Use as one word.
postgraduate - Use as one word.
President's House - The official building name, not “Home;” also see Appendix II.
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quotation marks - If a paragraph of quoted material is followed by another paragraph that continues the quotation, put close-quote marks at the end of the second, or final, paragraph – unless the first sentence of the first paragraph does not begin with a quote, then the first paragraph should end with close-quote marks; quotation marks are not required in a question-and-answer format (Question: Do you understand? Answer: Yes.); For quotes within quotes, use double quotation marks on the outside and singular quotation marks on the inside. Use three marks together if two quoted elements end at the same time (She said, “He told me, ‘I love you.’”) also see titles.
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regions - Spell using lowercase letters when indicating compass direction (a cold front is moving east); when referring to a region, capitalize the first letter (he has a Southern accent; they live in the South).
Richard W. Riley College of Education - The official name; also see Appendix III.
Richardson Hall - The official name for this residence hall, in first reference; in subsequent references, Richardson may be used.
Roddey Hall - The official name; also see Appendix II.
Rutledge Building - The official name for this building, in first reference; in subsequent references, Rutledge may be used.
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SAT - The acronym for the previously designated “Scholastic Aptitude Test,” using no periods between letters.
S.C. Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention and Advancement – The official name, including periods at “S.C.”; formerly known as S.C. Center for Teacher Recruitment. On second reference for the center use CERRA.
Scholars Walk - the official name, with no apostrophe, for the pedestrian walkway.
seasons - Spell using lowercase letters (spring, summer, winter, fall) unless part of a formal title (Winter Olympics).
Sellers House - The official name for this building; no acceptable second references.
semesters - When referring to each semester, use lowercase letters for the seasons (registration for fall 2000 classes); also see seasons.
semicolons - In general, use the semicolon when communicating a phrase that indicates a greater separation of thought than a comma can convey, but less than the separation that a period implies; use to separate elements of a series within a sentence (He is survived by a son, John Smith of Chicago; two daughters, Jill and Jane of New York; and a nephew, Jack of Toronto); use semicolons at the end of each bulleted item in a list only if the introductory sentence would make each item form a complete sentence.
Example: You may register in:
• spring; and
Sims Science Building - The official name for this building; also see Appendix II.
SMART technology – The correct way to reference this technology.
social networking - a practice by which people meet, interact and share information online through the use of such sites as Facebook, Twitter, etc.
south/Southern - Spell using lowercase letters when indicating compass direction (a cold front is moving east); when referring to a region, capitalize the first letter (he has a Southern accent; they live in the South).
state - In all state constructions, use lower case letters (the state of South Carolina), and also when describing jurisdiction (state funds, the state Transportation Department, state Rep. William Smith).
state abbreviations - See Appendix I; use ZIP code abbreviations for states, with no periods, only when referring to a mail delivery address.
startup, start up - One word, when used as a noun or adjective; use two words when used as a verb.
state of the art, state-of-the-art - Do not hyphenate when used as a noun (That computer is state of the art); hyphenate preceding a noun and in the form of an adjective (That is state-of-the-art technology).
Stewart House - The official name for this building; no acceptable second references.
Student Activity Center - The official name for this building that is adjacent to Withers/W.T.S. Building; no acceptable second references.
student-to-faculty ratio - The correct punctuation
Sykes House - The official name for this building; no acceptable second references.
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telephone numbers - See area codes.
tenure track/ non-tenure track - The correct punctuation when using these adjectives (the position is non-tenure track).
that/which, who/whom - “That” is the preferred pronoun to introduce a nonessential clause referring to inanimate objects and animals without a name; “which” may also be used when “that” has already been used to introduce another clause in the same sentence (he said Monday that the part of the army which suffered severe casualties needs reinforcement); use who and whom when referring to people and animals with a name.
The Courtyard at Winthrop - The official name; also see Appendix II.
The Edge - The official name (performance stage area in DiGiorgio Campus Center); also see Appendix II.
The Shack – The official name; do not use without “The” preceding; also see Appendix II.
Thomson Dining Center - The official name, with no “p” in the word “Thomson;” also see Appendix II.
Thomson Hall - The official building name; also see Appendix II.
Thurmond Building - The official building name, not “Hall;” also see Appendix II.
Tillman Hall - The official building name, not “Building;” also see Appendix II.
time (of day) - Use numbers, except when referring to midnight or noon; when referring to even hours, avoid using trailing zeros (use “4 p.m.” instead of “4:00 p.m.”); avoid redundancy, do not say “10 a.m. this morning” or “12 noon.”
titles - For official names of Winthrop buildings or spaces, see Appendix II; for official names of departments and offices, see Appendix III. In general, capitalize formal titles when used directly before an individual’s name (“President Comstock called a meeting”); when used following or without a specific name, spell with lowercase letters (“the president called a meeting;” “Dr. Comstock, president, called a meeting;” “please follow the official university guidelines”); composition titles (books, movies, plays, songs, lectures, works of art) should use initial upper case letters except for any articles (a, the, an) which do not begin or end the title; composition titles should be placed in quotation marks except for the Bible and catalogs of reference (directories, handbooks, encyclopedias, etc.); newspapers and similar periodicals’ titles should not be placed in quotation marks but should be italicized. See Composition titles.
Touchstone Program - the official name for Winthrop's general education program.
TRiO - The official name for this program.
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U.K. - The correct abbreviation for United Kingdom, using periods.
university - Spell with a capital “u” only when using the entire formal title (Winthrop University; the official university history book) .
URL - The correct acronym to use when referring to an Internet address, using all uppercase letters; in running text, Winthrop italicizes URLs. (www.winthrop.edu).
U.S. - The correct abbreviation for United States (using periods) when used as an adjective; spell out when using as a noun.
U.S. News & World Report - The correct title for this publication, including the ampersand; also see magazines.
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Vivian Moore Carroll Hall - The official name for this building; Carroll Hall acceptable upon second reference.
Ward House - The official name for this building; no acceptable second references.
Washington, D.C. - When referring to the nation’s capital, always include “D.C.” to avoid confusion with the state of Washington.
web, website - Short for “world wide web;” use lowercase “w.”
website URL - See URL.
Winthrop Ballpark - The official name for the ballpark; also see Appendix II.
Winthrop Coliseum - The official name for the coliseum; also see Appendix II.
Winthrop University - On first reference, use this official name; in subsequent references, “the university” (lowercase) is acceptable.
Winthrop University Lake Area, Recreational and Research Complex – The official name of the Winthrop lake and farm area; also see Appendix II.
Withers/W.T.S. Building - The official name for the building; also see Appendix II.
Wofford Hall - The official name for this residence hall in first reference; in subsequent references, Wofford may be used.
World War I, World War II
worldwide - Use as one word.
world wide web - The formal name, more frequently referred to as the web.
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years - For years in a range, omit the second reference to the century (1973-85).
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E-mail and Web addresses
No hyphens when breaking an e-mail or web address
When including an e-mail or web address in running text, set off by parentheses if commas or periods are necessary for correct punctuation and could confuse the reader, i.e. Check out our website (www.winthrop.edu). [Instead of: Check out our website, www.winthrop.edu.]
Printed URL addresses
If the domain starts with "www" or “www2” - you may leave off the http:// in print.
If the domain does not start with "www" or “www2”, you must include the http:// in print.
Web pages on Winthrop's secure servers should default to the proper site without the need for “https.”
Never end the URL with a forward slash. Ex. http://www.winthrop.edu/
See Appendix II for preferred usages for first mention of named programs or spaces and acceptable subsequent references.
See Winthrop University Graphic Standards Manual.
Names to Avoid
Do not use Joynes Conference Center, Joynes Center for Continuing Education, Withers Building (or worse yet, Hall), Thurmond Hall, College of Business, School of Business, School of Business Administration, School of Education, School of Visual and Performing Arts.
Only use "Hall" with the following: Bancroft, Carroll, Dinkins, Joynes, Kinard, Lee Wicker, Margaret Nance, McBryde, McLaurin, Owens, Phelps, Richardson, Thomson, Tillman, and Wofford.
If referencing accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, you must use the following required verbiage: Winthrop is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award bachelor’s, master’s and specialist degrees.
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State abbreviations are not the same as postal abbreviations, and some state names are never abbreviated. Abbreviate state names when following city names and set off by commas. Do not abbreviate state names of five letters or fewer, or Alaska and Hawaii. Example: Birmingham, Ala., not Birmingham, AL
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Buildings and Spaces
Following is a list of formal names for buildings and spaces on Winthrop’s campus. The list is presented in alphabetical order with the preferred first mention usage listed first, followed by the acceptable subsequent reference. Locations of some rooms, indicated in parentheses, are for information only.
Academic Computing Center - the ACC
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory (Sims) – Chemical Synthesis Lab
Anthony J. and Gale N. DiGiorgio Campus Center – DiGiorgio Center
Bancroft Hall - Bancroft
Baruch Room (Joynes) - No acceptable second references
Byrnes Auditorium - Byrnes
Carroll Capital Markets Training and Trading Center (Carroll Hall) - No acceptable second references
Central Energy Plant - No acceptable second references
Clarence and Lynn Hornsby Conference Room (Kinard) - Hornsby Conference Room
Community Concourse - second reference: The Concourse
Conservatory of Music - The Conservatory
Courtyard at Winthrop, The - Courtyard
Courtyard Food Court - No acceptable second references
Crawford Building - Crawford
Culp Chiller Plant - No acceptable second references
Dalton Hall - No acceptable second references
Dinkins Hall – Dinkins
Dunlap Roddey Board of Trustees Room (Johnson) - Dunlap Roddey Board Room
Eagle Express (Thomson) - No acceptable second references
Eagle Field (soccer) - No acceptable second references
Edge, The - No acceptable second references
Edmund D. Lewandowski Student Gallery (McLaurin) - Lewandowski Gallery
Elizabeth Dunlap Patrick Gallery (Rutledge) - Patrick Gallery
Elizabeth Norfleet King Atrium (Life Sciences) – King Atrium
Founders Federal Credit Union Seminar Room (Thurmond) – Founders
Frances May Barnes Recital Hall - Barnes Recital Hall
Glenda Pittman and Charles Jerry Owens Hall – Owens Hall
Good Building - No acceptable second references
Hardin Family Garden - No acceptable second references
Harold Gilbreath Seminar Room (Tillman) - Gilbreath Seminar Room
Ida Jane Dacus Library - Dacus Library
Inn at Winthrop - No acceptable second references
Instructional Technology Center (Withers/W.T.S.) – Technology Center
Irvin and Jean Kirby Plowden Auditorium (Withers/W.T.S.) - Plowden Auditorium
Irwin Belk Track – Belk Track
J. Spratt and Sandra Hagler White Lecture Room (Owens Hall) - White Lecture Room
Jean Richards Roddey Lobby (Joynes) - Roddey Lobby
John and Marian Minerd Executive Seminar Room (Carroll Hall)
Johnson Hall - Johnson
Joynes Hall – Joynes
Kinard Hall - Kinard
Ladson A. Barnes Family Editing Laboratory (Johnson) - Barnes Editing Lab
Lee Wicker Hall - Lee Wicker
Lisa Hudson Evans and Carlos E. Evans Room - DiGiorgio Campus Center
Little Chapel - No acceptable second references
Lois Rhame West Health, Physical Education and Wellness Center – West Center
Macfeat Early Childhood Laboratory School - Macfeat
Macfeat House - No acceptable second reference
Margaret Nance Hall - Margaret Nance
Markley's at the Center - Markley's
Marshall and Gloria Doswell Conference Room (Withers/W.T.S.) –
Doswell Conference Room
Marshall and Lillian Walker Conference Room (Withers/W.T.S.) –
Walker Conference Room
Mary Roland Griffin Human Performance Lab - West Center
McBryde Hall - McBryde
McLaurin Hall - McLaurin
Olde Stone House, The – Stone House
Outdoor Education Center - Ropes Course
Operations Center at Winthrop, The – Operations Center
Peabody Gymnasium (West Center)
Phelps Hall - Phelps
Piedmont Wetlands Project – the Wetlands
President’s House - No acceptable second references
Richard W. Riley College of Education - College of Education
Richardson Hall - Richardson
Robert L. and Norma Thompson Conference Room – Thompson Conference Room
Rock Hill Coca-Cola Academic Resource Center (Coliseum) – No acceptable second reference
Roddey Hall - Roddey
Rosalind and Jerry Richardson Ballroom - DiGiorgio Campus Center; Richardson Ballroom (second reference)
Rutledge Building - Rutledge
Sellers House - No acceptable second references
Shack, The – No acceptable second references
Sims Science Building - Sims
Slaughter-Wilkerson Conference Room (Sims) - No acceptable second references
Springs Lab (Kinard) - No acceptable second references
Stewart House - No acceptable second references
Student Activity Center (Withers) - No acceptable second references
Suzanne Kirsh Community Service Student Lounge (Carroll Hall) - No acceptable second references
Sykes House - No acceptable second references
Terry Tower - No acceptable second references
Thomson Hall - Thomson
Thomson Dining Center – No acceptable second references
Thurmond Building - Thurmond
Tillman Hall - Tillman
Tuttle Dining Room - No acceptable second references
Vera Gruber Batten Dining Hall (McBryde Hall)
Vivian Moore Carroll Hall - Carroll Hall
Wachovia Executive Development Center (Thurmond) - Wachovia Center
Ward House - No acceptable second references
Whitton Auditorium (Carroll Hall) - No acceptable second references
Winthrop Ballpark - Ballpark
Winthrop Coliseum – Coliseum
Winthrop Lodge – No acceptable second references
Winthrop Softball Complex - No acceptable second references
Winthrop Tennis Complex - No acceptable second references
Winthrop University Alumni Association Conference Room (second floor,
Conservatory) – Alumni Assoc. Conf. Room
Winthrop University Alumni Association Conference Room (Withers/W.T.S.) –
Alumni Assoc. Conf. Room
Winthrop University Alumni Association Green Room (room 212, Conservatory) –
Alumni Assoc. Green Room
Winthrop University Alumni Association Music Library (Conservatory) –
Alumni Assoc. Music Library
Winthrop University Bookstore – Bookstore
Winthrop University Lake Area, Recreational and Research Complex - the Farm
Withers /W.T.S. Building - Withers/W.T.S.
Wofford Hall - No acceptable second references
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Departments and Offices
The following is a list of the official names assigned to departments and offices at Winthrop. In formal writing, the first mention of any department or office should use the official name (eg. Department of English). Subsequent references may be shortened to a more generic reference to the department or office (e.g. English department).
Academic Affairs, Vice President for
Academic Computing Center
Academic Data Management & Solutions, Office of
Academic Space and Scheduling, Office of
Academic Success Center
Accounting, Finance and Economics, Department of
Accreditation, Accountability and Academic Services, Department of
Admissions, Office of
Arts in Basic Curriculum Project (ABC)
Arts and Sciences, College of
Assessment, Office of
Associate VP for Academic Affairs, Office of
Biology, Department of
Business Administration, College of
Career and Civic Engagement, Center for
Chemistry, Physics and Geology, Department of
College of Arts and Sciences Student Services
College of Business Administration Student Services
College of Education Student Academic Services
College of Visual and Performing Arts Student Services
Computer Science and Quantitative Methods, Department of
Computing and Information Technology, Division of
Counseling, Leadership and Educational Studies, Department of
Cultural Events Office
Curriculum and Pedagogy, Department of
Design, Department of
Development, Office of
Dining Services (ARAMARK)
Disability Services, Office of
Distance Learning and AV Services
Eagle Express Convenience Store
Education, Richard W. Riley College of
English, Department of
Environmental, Health and Safety Office
Facilities Design and Development
Finance and Business, Vice President for
Financial Aid, Office of
Fine Arts, Department of
Fraternity and Sorority Affairs, Office of
Galleries, Winthrop University
Health and Counseling Services, Department of
History, Department of
Human Nutrition, Department of
Human Resources, Office of
Ida Jane Dacus Library
Information Technology Services
Institutional Effectiveness, Office of
Institutional Research, Office of
Instructional Technology Center
Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of
Internal Audit, Office of
International Student Advisor
James and Susan Rex Institute for Educational Renewal and Partnership
Leadership Studies, Office of
Louise Pettus Archives and Special Collections
Macfeat Early Childhood Laboratory School
Management and Marketing, Department of
Mass Communication, Department of
Master of Liberal Arts
Mathematics, Department of
Milton W. and Betty Morgan Holcombe Alumni Center, The: second reference - The Morgan-Holcombe Alumni Center
Multicultural Student Life, Office of
Music, Department of
Nationally Competitive Awards, Office of
New Stage Ensemble Theatre Company
New Student and Parent Programs, Office of
North Central Regional S²MART Center
Operations Center at Winthrop
Outdoor Education Center
Philosophy and Religious Studies, Department of
Physical Education, Sport and Human Performance, Department of
Political Science, Department of
President, Office of the
President Emeritus, Office of the
Procurement and Risk Management
Psychology, Department of
Public Events, Office of
Records and Registration, Office of
Recreational Services, Office of
Residence Life, Department of
Resource Center for Adult Students
SACS Reaffirmation, Office of
S.C. Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention and Advancement
Small Business Development Center
Social Work, Department of
Sociology, Department of
Special Projects, Office of (College of Visual and Performing Arts)
Speech, Department of
Sponsored Programs and Research
Student Accounts Receivable
Student Financial Services
Student Life, Vice President for
Teaching and Learning Center
Telephone and Network Services
Theatre and Dance, Department of
University Advancement and Enrollment Management, Vice President for
University Development and Alumni Relations, Vice President for
University Relations, Office of
Visual and Performing Arts, College of
World Languages and Cultures, Department of
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Abbreviations – Academic Degrees
The following abbreviations are for the academic degrees awarded at Winthrop. Abbreviations should be used when the written form of the degree would otherwise prove cumbersome to spell out and should include the punctuation as specified below. For a more exhaustive list of academic degree abbreviations, refer to the MLA Style Manual’s section on Common Scholarly Abbreviations, which is on loan at Dacus Library.
Academic Degree Abbreviations
Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Fine Arts
Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music Education
Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Social Work
Master of Arts
Master of Arts in Teaching
Master of Business Administration
Master of Education
Master of Fine Arts
Master of Liberal Arts
Master of Music Education
Master of Science
Master of Social Work
Specialist in School Psychology
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The following is a brief list of standard marks used by proofreaders to edit written material. The following information is part of the Associated Press stylebook.
Following is a list of legislative titles and descriptions on how they should be used in different situations. There is also a list of examples for use of various organizational titles. The following information is part of the Associated Press stylebook.
FIRST REFERNCE FORM: Use Rep., Reps., Sen. and Sens. as formal titles before one or more names in regular text. Spell out and capitalize these titles before one or more names in a direct quotation. Spell out and lowercase representative and senator in other uses.
Spell out other legislative titles in all uses. Capitalize formal titles such as assemblywoman, assemblyman, city councilor, delegate, etc., when they are used before a name. Lowercase in other uses.
Add U.S. or state before a title only if necessary to avoid confusion: U.S. Sen. Nancy Kassebaum spoke with state Sen. Hugh Carter.
FIRST REFERENCE PRACTICE: The use of a title such as Rep. or Sen. in first reference is normal in most stories. It is not mandatory, however, provided an individual’s title is given later in the story.
Deletion of the title on first reference is frequently appropriate, for example, when an individual has become well known: Barry Goldwater endorsed President Ford today. The Arizona senator said he believes the president deserves another term.
SECOND REFERENCE: Do not use legislative titles before a name on second reference unless they are part of a direct quotation.
CONGRESSMAN, CONGRESSWOMAN: Rep. and U.S. Rep are the preferred first-reference forms when a formal title is used before the name of a U.S. House member. The words congressman or congresswoman, in lowercase, may be used in subsequent references that do not use an individual’s name, just as senator is used in references to members of the Senate.
Congressman and congresswoman should appear as capitalized formal titles before a name only in direct quotation.
ORGANIZATIONAL TITLES: Capitalize titles for formal, organizational offices within a legislative body when they are used before a name: Speaker Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Harry Reid, Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, Democratic Whip James E. Clyburn, Chairman John J. Sparkman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, President Pro Tem Robert C. Byrd.
DiGiorgio Campus Center Style Guide
Formal reference: Anthony J. and Gale N. DiGiorgio Campus Center
First reference: DiGiorgio Campus Center
Second reference: DiGiorgio Center
Informal reference, when speaking about the building or for student posters: DIGS
Inside the DiGiorgio Center:
Markley's at the Center Food Court (first reference) or Markley's (second reference)
The Edge - DiGiorgio Center
Dina's Place - DiGiorgio Center
Rosalind and Jerry Richardson Ballroom - DiGiorgio Center (first reference) or Richardson Ballroom (second reference)
Ballroom lobby - DiGiorgio Center
Recreational area - DiGiorgio Center
Winthrop University Bookstore (first reference) Bookstore (second reference)
Lisa Hudson Evans and Carlos E. Evans Room
McElveen Rotunda - third floor lobby area
Outside the DiGiorgio Center:
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Last updated July 1, 2013